Manage Your Research Data: Citing Data

This guide provides a primer on the fundamentals of data management.

On This Page

How to Cite Data
Provides general overview and best practice.

Citing in APA, MLA, Chicago
Provides examples of data cited in APA, MLA, and Chicago citation styles.

Additional Web Resources
Provides links to detailed citation guides.

How to Cite Data

Citation varies between disciplines and style-guides, but they will all require the following information:
- Author or creator of the data.
- Title of the dataset.
- Version or edition of the dataset.
- Publication data.
- Archive or publisher of data (ex. repository, data center, or database).
- Digital Identifier (ex. URL, PURL, or DOI). 

Please note that many data depositories will also include a template for how they want their data cited.

Examples

Brown, Anne and Benjamin Y. Clark. Data From: What Makes Cents? How Uber Shapes Municipal On-Street Parking Revenue. NITC-2016-UO-15. Portland, OR: Transportation Research and Education Center (TREC), 2020. https://doi.org/10.15760/TREC_datasets.08 

Kachorsky, Dani, Reid, Stephanie F., and Chapman, Kathryn. Education through TIME:  Representations of United States Education on TIME Magazine Covers. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2020-08-31. https://doi.org/10.3886/E120906V1  

Citing in APA, MLA, Chicago

APA Style 6th 
Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.
or
Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of data set [Description of form].  Retrieved from http://xxx
Example:
Jolin, A., Fountain, R., Feyerherm, W., & Friedman, S. (2002). Portland [Oregon] Domestic Violence Experiment, 1996-1997 [Data set]. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03353.V2

MLA 7th 
Author. "Title of entry." Title of book. Edition. Ed. Editor's name(s). Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Page range. Medium of publication. Date of access.  <URL>
Example:
Jolin, Annette, et al. "Portland [Oregon] Domestic Violence Experiment, 1996-1997." ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. Web. Accessed 4 Jan 2021. <https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03353.V2>

Chicago
Chicago does not currently provide specific citation guidelines for datasets, so it is suggested they are cited like other web resources:
Author. "Title." Source. date. Access Date. URL.
Example:
Jolin, Annette, Robert Fountain, William Feyerherm, and Sharon Friedman. “Portland [Oregon] Domestic Violence Experiment, 1996-1997.” ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. Accessed 4 Jan 2021. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03353.V2.