UNST 109A & 109K Portland - Batchelder: Historical Primary Sources
What is a Primary Source?
A primary source is an item that was created during the period being studied and documents in some way what is being studied.
Examples: Newspaper accounts, government documents, letters, diaries, autobiographies, speeches, oral histories, museum artifacts, photographs.
Finding Primary Sources
Search for Primary Sources
A primary source is an item that was created during the period being studied, and it documents in some way what is being studied. Examples of primary sources include speeches, diaries, newspapers, and personal accounts.
Additionally, primary sources can be contextual to the research, for example a television show like Game of Thrones could be a primary source for research about power relationships.
Search the PSU Library Catalog
Go to the PSU Library Catalog and look for primary sources on a certain topic by using the Advanced Search:
- In the first search field, leave the menu on Any Field and then enter keyword(s) for your topic;
- In the second search field, change the drop-down menu to Subject, then add the type of primary source.
This image shows a search for a memoir related to Paul West.
Choose multiple related topics by inserting a capitalized OR between them.
This image shows a search for "civil war" as a keyword phrase and correspondence OR diaries as the types of primary resources.
Search the Public Domain
If your topic is pre-1923, you can find primary sources that are in the public domain. Resources in the public domain are not under copyright protection and are usually available online for free. Google, HathiTrust, and the Digital Public Library of America have digitized documents from the world's major research libraries. The Chronicling America project at the Library of Congress has digitized American newspapers from 1836 to 1922.
Primary vs Secondary Sources Video (Vermont Tech, Hartness Library 2017)
The American West
An excellent library database for primary sources relevant to the Pacific Northwest.
Local Collections and Archives
Using a special collections library or archive is different from using public and academic libraries. For example, not all of the items in the collection may be cataloged, and you will probably not be able to browse the collection. The organization may have limited hours. There may rules around what you can bring into the reading area: some will allow only pencils and not pens, and you should plan to leave your food and drinks at home.
To prepare for your visit, explore the organization's website to see what collections they hold. Check the organization's hours. And then contact the organization to make an appointment, as not all archives are open without appointment.